Catre Tur Virtual
ALEXANDRU TZIGARA-SAMURCAŞ

Se naşte la 4 aprilie 1872, în Bucureşti, într-o veche familie de mici boieri. Liceul îl face la Bucureşti. În 1892 este numit „custode preparator" la Muzeul de antichităţi, condus de Grigore Tocilescu. În 1893 pleacă la studii în Germania, la Universitatea din Műnchen, sprijinit de Regele Carol I, la sfaturile lui Al. Odobescu. Aici studiază istoria artei. Întors în ţară, demisionează de la Muzeul de antichităţi şi-şi continuă studiile, plecând în Franţa şi, din nou, în Germania, preocupat fiind de muzeografie. Îl are ca îndrumător pe Wilhelm von Bode, reformator al muzeelor berlineze.

După terminarea studiilor, este numit bibliotecar,apoi director la Fundaţia Carol I şi profesor la catedra de istoria artei şi estetică la Şcoala de Arte Frumoase din Bucureşti .

La 1 octombrie 1906 Al. Tzigara-Samurcaş este numit director al Muzeului etnografic, de artă naţională, artă decorativă şi artă industrială, devenit, în 1915, Muzeul de artă naţională Carol I. Noul muzeu funcţiona temporar în clădirea fostei monetării a statului din Şoseaua Kiseleff nr.3, pe locul unde fusese palatul domnitorului Nicolae Mavrogheni. De la început, Al. Tzigara-Samurcaş îşi organizează muzeul pe baze ştiinţifice moderne. Achiziţiile pe care le face duc la sporirea considerabilă a colecţiilor, punctul forte fiind expunerea pavilionară a casei lui Antonie Mogoş din Ceauru, jud. Gorj.

Începe o luptă neîntreruptă pentru obţinerea din partea autorităţilor a fondurilor necesare ridicării noului local (cel actual), la ale cărui planuri a colaborat cu arhitectul N. Ghica-Budeşti. În acest scop, el scrie numeroase articole în presă, pe care le va strânge mai târziu, în 1936, în cartea sa, „Muzeografie românească”. La 30 iunie 1912 se pune piatra fundamentală a noii clădiri a Muzeului. Construcţia a suferit numeroase întreruperi, fiind definitivată abia în 1941.

În toată perioada cât a fost director al Muzeului, Al. Tzigara-Samurcaş a depus o activitate prodigioasă, legată şi de celelalte importante funcţii pe care le-a îndeplinit: director al Fundaţiei Carol I şi profesor de istoria artei şi estetică la Cernăuţi. Scrie articole din cele mai variate domenii, lucrări de specialitate, între care arta populară ocupă un loc de frunte, ţine conferinţe la radio sau la Ateneu, participă la congrese şi expoziţii internaţionale. Al.Tzigara-Samurcaş devine un nume de referinţă în domeniul care l-a consacrat.

Situaţia se deteriorează după al doilea război mondial, când autorităţile comuniste îl alungă în 1948 de la conducerea Muzeului. Bătrân, bolnav şi umilit peste măsură, Părintele muzeului de la Şosea moare la 1 aprilie 1952.

Call for Papers: Archives and Politics of Memory in Central and Eastern Europe: from Informal Practices to Formal Methodologies




Organiser: National Museum of Romanian Peasant (Bucharest)
Date: 11-12 October 2018
Partners: MA Visual Studies and Society (National University of Political Studies and Public Administration - Bucharest), MA in Anthropology (National University of Political Studies and Public Administration - Bucharest), The Department of Ancient History, Archaeology and Art History at the University of Bucharest.

This workshop addresses an effervescent phenomenon triggered especially in the last decade by the discovery and/or by the (partial or full) opening up of institutional or / and private archives and collections in Central and Eastern Europe. The phenomenon poses a series of challenges such as: defining the right to ownership of individual memory as archived (and therefore institutionalized) memory; grasping the ambiguities which derive from this situation; finding the appropriate forms of retrieval, processing and archiving (some of the documents and objects being in a poor state of conservation); and advancing an ethics of exploiting such objects and the memories they enshrine.
The event will be open to scholars and to any members of the public interested in the above challenges. The workshop will focus on:
• informal practices developed by non-institutional actors – akin to “forensic investigation” (Brădeanu 2007) – to access a myriad types of archives and collections;
• methodologies for the reception, the interrogation, the processing/making use of and the (re)interpreting of archived objects/documents;
• the role of institutional actors who have shown interest in "vehicles of memory" (Confino 1997) and brought them out of the "biographical shadow" into which they had been consigned as a consequence of invisibility-targeted state politics or as a consequence of so-called historical accidents.

We invite submissions from the fields of Sociology, Anthropology, Ethnology, Political Science, History, Media and Cultural Studies that elaborate on, or are inspired by, the following topics:

1. The overlapping of the opening of archives with the spread of information technology. Over the past 20 years, at least two phenomena came to preeminence in archive dynamics. Here we address archives as “realms of memory” (Nora 1997), and we refer especially to archives in fields of humanities and social sciences. On the one hand, we witnessed the abundance and ready availability of information (text, image, sound, etc.) due to the generalized use of information technology. On the other hand, we noticed the diversification of these “realms of memory” by means of a plethora of ways of archiving information: institutional, private or hybrid, i.e. the archives formed following the dispersal of some institutional collections. Additionally, the advancement of new technology occasioned the transformation of the spoken words of the past, or of the testimonies recorded on magnetic tape, into texts, images, and sound archives.. (Ricoeur 2001)
2. Ownership of archives in post-socialist context. In countries of the ex-socialist bloc, the dynamics of archives articulate with the dynamics of the political changes which marked the fall of the socialist regimes. The change of the regime engendered the process of privatization that is the transition from collective to private property. Thus, recourse to archived memory, besides involving ethical and deontological problems, raises issues of ownership of the archived objects. Concomitantly scientific research was endowed with commodity value and became measurable. As a consequence we witnessed the attribution of a market value to archive use, and equally to the function of archives as repositories of memory.
3. The contamination of the logic of the archives by the logic of the database. Over the past 10-15 years, one can observe a contamination of the logic of the archive (tributary as it is to taxonomies related to the logic of different disciplines - history, ethnography, demography, etc.) by the logic of the database. Archived documents exist in an organic relationship with one another, and their reading is done convergently. On the contrary the database surrenders the logic of association of information to the researcher and involves the existence of diversified criteria in the selection and classification of information. The overlapping of archive and database related methodologies in the storing and re-questioning of information raises methodological issues concerning their use as well as ethical issues regarding access to the archived information.
4. Archives and art. Last but not least, the intersection between art and society has generated a scientific field of its own. This field involves forms of artistic expression which archives have themselves inspired. This has led to a situation in which cultural, political and social meanings of archives has come into the spotlight.
The workshop will include individual interventions and establish working discussion groups. Depending on the number of participants it will take place over one or two days.
Two international guests, distinguished in the field, will join our discussions and will give the keynote lectures (which will also be open to the general public). Individual interventions should not exceed 20 minutes.
Travel and accommodation costs will be the responsibility of participants.
The workshop will be followed by the publication of a volume of proceedings.

Please send your abstract (approx. 250 words) and a short professional bio to bogdan.iancu@politice.ro by May 15th 2018. Confirmation of acceptance, together with the invitation for the full paper preparation and presentation at the workshop will be sent until 15th June 2018. Please note that full papers should not exceed 2500 words / 8 pages in length and should be sent to the organizers by October 5th 2018.




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